KeMU APA Citation Guide

This handout is based on the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), but is not a comprehensive guide.

For all rules and requirements of APA citations, please consult the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 

Kindly Download the Guide Here: KeMU APA Citation Guide (pdf)



 



KENYA METHODIST UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

American Psychological Association (APA) Citation Guide


Introduction
This handout is based on the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), but is not a comprehensive guide. For all rules and requirements of APA citations, please consult the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.  
APA uses the author-date method of citation. The last name of the author and the date of publication are inserted in the text in the appropriate place.
In-Text Citations
In-text citation refers to citations that appear within the text of your paper and refer to sources cited in your references page.
Item    Citation description
One author

Parenthetical citation     Every citation: (author’s last name, publication year)
McInnis (1982) found …..

Several rivers aside from the Thames once intersected London, although those rivers have since been covered over by development (Clayton, 2000).
2 authors    Every citation: (Author 1 & Author 2, year) Use “&” within parentheses. Write out the word “and” when authors’ names are used in the signal phrase.
“…thus, leading to higher rates of HIV infection (Peacock & Slocum, 2004).
 “According to Peacock and Slocum (2004), the higher rates of HIV …”
3-5 authors    First use: List all authors (separate names with commas) and publication date
(Ivy, Dees, & Coe, 1999).
Subsequent use: List first author + et al., + date; (et al. means “and others”)
(Ivy et al., 1999).
Note: et is Latin and (not an abbreviation, no period)—al. is an abbreviation for the Latin alia (“others”) and therefore always uses a period. In the citation, a comma separates et al. from the date.
Organization or Government Department as corporate author    If individual authors are not listed, use the organization as the author.
To define an abbreviation within a citation for a corporate author that you will cite several times, enclose the abbreviation in square brackets.
                (March of Dimes Foundation, 2009).
(Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS], 2007).
Internet site    Use same author–date format. If no individual author for a Web page is given, list the organization as the author. The date to use from a web page is sometimes difficult to determine.  The APA blog entry for dating online documents cautions against using any of the following as the date--a “last modified,” or “revised on” date or copyright date that is site-wide--as none of these usually refers to when the material was actually created or posted.  If no obvious posted date is available at the beginning or the end of a document, use “n.d.” for “no date” instead.   DO NOT put a web address in the text of the paper.
(Planned Parenthood, n.d.)  (Stearns, 2009) (National Health Statistics, 2003)
Citing multiple pages from one Website










    When citing multiple pages from an organization’s Web site, the reference entry should use the exact URL for each page. Because each in-text entry would have the same author/organization and year, you will need to add a lowercase letter to the year to distinguish citations for each page. Letters are assigned in the order that the citations are used in the text.
The examples below are different pages from North Carolina (NC) Division of Social Services Web site that would all be cited as (NC Division of Social Services, 2010). A lowercase letter is added to in-text citation and the corresponding reference entry. If you choose to abbreviate the source, you’ll need to define the abbreviation only once and then apply to all:
In-text (1st pg.)
(North Carolina Division of Social Services [NCDSS], 2010a)
Reference entry
North Carolina Division of Social Services. (2010a). Role & responsibilities of CSE agency. Retrieved from http://www.ncdhhs.gov/dss/cse/geninfo.htm#role
In-text (2nd pg.)
(NCDSS, 2010b)
Reference entry
North Carolina Division of Social Services. (2010b). Work First. Retrieved from http://www.ncdhhs.gov/dss/workfirst/index.htm
In-text (3rd pg.)
(NCDSS, 2010c)

Reference entry
North Carolina Division of Social Services. (2010c). Low income energy assistance program. Retrieved from http://www.ncdhhs.gov/dss/energy/index.htm

Personal Communication    Sources such as letters, e-mails, telephone conversations, personal interviews, non-archived electronic bulletin boards. These are non-retrievable sources; therefore, there should be no corresponding reference entry, only an in-text citation as illustrated below:
“According to a service representative at Duke Power (I. M. Gil, personal communication, May1, 2009), connection charges incurred…”
“T. L. Graf (personal communication, May 1, 2009) noted the eligibility…”
More than one work by same author or group    Use a comma to separate years of multiple works.
(Shelter, 1999, 2004, 2007)
(Peacock, Tibbs, & Slocum, 1989, 1992)
More than one work – different authors    Use semicolons to separate different works within the same parentheses. Citations arealphabetized by first author within the parentheses.
Findings from several research studies have supported this hypothesis (Adey, 1999; Coe & Kin, 2006; Long, Vic, Trout, & Gamble, 2001; Wing et al., n.d.; Xavier, Malton-Ruiz, McBride, Healy, Keefer, 1999)
More than one work same author, same year     Add a lowercase letter to distinguish between same author–same year works. The first citation encountered in the body is assigned a, the second b, and so on. Be sure to add the letters to the reference entries.
(Smith, 2002a)  (Smith, 2002b)  (Smith, 2002a, 2002b)
Classical works
or republished    Reprinted or republished works, not issued as revised editions. Include both the original publication year and the date of reprinting.
(Freud, 1923/1961)
Newspaper article, pamphlet, brochure
No author    Use a shortened version of article’s title in place of the author name. Use double quotation marks to enclose the title of an article, web page, or chapter. Use italics for the titles of a book, periodical, brochure, or report.
To cite newspaper story: “Soldier’s Service Leads to Custody Battle at Home,” shorten title to “Soldier’s Service” (rather than “Custody Battle”)–keeping the first words allows the reader to easily find source in the reference list.
“…complicated scenarios (“Soldier’s Service,” 2009).”
“...range of programs (Dual MSW/PHA Degree, n.d.)”
Federal Statutes    Basic form:   Name of Act (Year)  or   Name of Act of Year
“ The Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) established …     or
“   as mandated by the American with Disabilities Act of 1990.”
Reference Entries
Note:
•    All references that appear in the text must appear in the references list in alphabetical order by the author’s last namewith the exception of personal communication; only cite personal communication in the text.
•    All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
•    Be sure to double-space your all reference entries.
Reference entries for Journals
Print Version
Journal article with one author    Basic form
 Author A. A., & Author, B. B. (Publication year). Title of article with first word capped. Journal Name, vol(issue no.), page range.   
Gambrill, E. D. (2001). The tide is turning: corporal punishment in our schools.   Quarterly of Social Work Teaching and Education, 27(2), 14-19.
Note: There is no space between the volume number and the issue number in parentheses (27 and 2, respectively, in this example).
Journal article with 7 authors.


    List first 6 authors + & + 7th author.
Author, 1., Author, 2., Author, 3., Author, 4., Author, 5., Author, 6., & Author, 7. (Year). Title in sentence style caps: Cap first word after internal punctuation. Journal Title in Headline Caps and Italics, 2, 124-129.

Article with more than 7 authors

    List first 6 authors + …, + last author. (Remainder of format is the same as above)
Guo, S., June, B., May, F., Day, S., Bird, M., Tyro, G., Bates, B. (2009). Effects of small group process on personal goal setting. Group Work, 12(3), 1-7.
Paginated by volume    If journal uses continuous pagination, DO NOT includes issue number in reference Example
Atkinson, R. (1996). Library functions, scholarly communication, and the foundation of the digital library: Laying claim to the control zone. The Library Quarterly 66(3), 239–65.
Paginated by issue    If each issue of a journal begins with page 1, include issue number in reference.
Example
Mary, C. (2002). Igniting Change in Scholarly Communication: SPARC, Its Past, Present, and Future. Advances in Librarianship 26(2) 1–8.
Journal article - cited in a secondary source
    In-text citation
(Lilieholm & Romney, 2000, as cited in Suntikul, Butler, & Airey, 2010) or
Lilieholm and Romney (2000, as cited in Suntikul, Butler, & Airey, 2010) argue that...
In reference list
Suntikul, W., Butler, R., & Airey, D. (2010). Implications of political change on national park operations: Doimoi and tourism to Vietnam's national parks. Journal of Ecotourism, 9(3), 201-218. doi: 10.1080/14724040903144360
Referencing Electronic Journals
The style of citations for online sources has changed substantially with the sixth edition of the APA Publication manual. The most important change is in how the information is cited. Articles or other materials found in a database are not cited with the name of the database in which it was found. When possible, a DOI, or Digital Object Identifier, is given. In practice DOIs are mainly available for scholarly journal articles, and not always then. When no DOI is present, the home page of the source publication, not the database, is given. Below are ways of citing electronic sources:
Electronic Source Journal Articles using DOI     .What’s a DOI? Digital Object Identifier, a unique alphanumeric identifier that acts as a persistent link to content on the Web.  Usually found on the abstract page, sometimes near the copyright date, or on the citation page in a database.
Example:  doi: 10.1007/s10802-006-9049-4
Electronic Journal Article—
Articles with DOI assigned    Format is the same as for print articles but add the DOI instead of retrieval information. For entry, doi is lowercase and followed by a colon, no space after colon.
No retrieval date is needed. Note: Do not add punctuation after DOI number
Smokowski, P. R., & Bacallao, M. L. (2006). Acculturation and aggression in Latino adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 657-671. doi: 10.1007/s10802-006-9049-4
Electronic Journal article
No DOI available



    •    Not all journal articles will have a DOI number. If retrieved online from a public database or journal with free access, then give the specific URL (uniform resource locator, a.k.a. Web address) that will link the reader to the article.   (Do not add punctuation after the URL.)
Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 45, 12-20. Retrieved from  http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap/article/view/71
No retrieval date is needed because the final (archived) copy is referenced.
Article  where there no DOI available from the database on subscription  

    •    If the article has been retrieved from a journal or aggregate database that requires a subscription (like those from PERI), give the URL for the journal’s home page rather than the database link. For example, the article below was retrieved from the KeMU Library using EBSCOhost database, Academic Search Premier, which is a subscription database.
Rose, R., & Bowen, G. (2009). Power analysis in social work intervention research: Designing cluster-randomized trials. Social Work Research, 33, 43-54. Retrieved from http://www.naswpress.org/publications/journals/swr.html
NB
When There's No DOI
If there is a periodical article without a DOI, the APA style requires you to give the home page of the magazine, journal or newspaper. You will have to look this up using a search engine such as Google.



Reference entries for books
Book – basic format
(print version)
    Author, 1., & Author, 2. (Year). Title in italics and sentence style caps. City, ST: Publisher.
Livermore, J. B., & Quigley, E. (2002). Field assessment in crisis counseling (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Note:  For editions other than the first, include in parentheses in non-italicizedtype, after the title, as in (2nd ed.) above.
Up to 7 authors    List first 6 + & + 7th.
More than 7 authors    List first 6 + …, + last.
E-Book
(Electronic version from subscription database such as eBooks ebrary, Springer, Taylor & Francis, etc.    Although APA standard style would calls for including the URL from which the e-book was accessed rather than the name of the electronic database or collection   from which an e-book was retrieved, it is recommended to use the database name instead, because the URL generated by the database does not allow access to the e-book
McDonald, L. (2005). Florence Nightingale on women, medicine, midwifery and prostitution [ebrary Reader version]. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com


No author    Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary. (10th ed.). (1998). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

Editors instead of authors    Richman, J., & Fraser, M. (Eds.). (2004). Assessment tools for behavior of elementary-school children. New York, NY: Aldine.
Article from an Encyclopedia - Electronic Version-Freely accessible on the web    Hagen, J. L., & Lawrence, C. K. (2008). Temporary assistance for needy families. In T. Mizrahi & L. E. Davis (Eds.-in-Chief), Encyclopedia of social works (20th ed.). Washington, DC, and New York, NY: NASW Press and Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://www.oxford-naswsocialwork.com/entry?entry=t203.e393

Article from an Encyclopedia - Electronic Version-From within a subscription database (not free)

(Suggested alternative to APA’s standard method)    The following is an article from an electronic encyclopedia (for which there is also a print counterpart) from within a subscription (not free) database.  The citation below is for the electronic version.  Note that the citation deviates from standard APA style, which would call for the URL in the “Retrieved…” area; however, the URL would not allow access to the article; hence, the recommended “exception” to standard APA Style,
    Reynolds, F. E., & Hallisey, C. (2005). Buddhism: An overview. In L. Jones (Ed.), Encyclopedia of religion (2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 1087-1109). Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library via GALE/CENGAGE Learning.
Chapter in edited book
    Sharpe, T. J., & Creed. R. T. (2007). Developmental disabilities. In S. J. Parish & H. Hu (Eds.), Advances in serving vulnerable populations (pp. 33-67). Medfield, OR: Walnut Press.
        Note: Editors names are not inverted.
Books cited in a secondary sources    In-text citation
Carter and Beadle's (1930, as cited in Crisman & Streever, 1996) research shows that... or
In the research of Carter and Beadle (1930, as cited in Crisman & Streever, 1996)...
In reference list
Crisman, T. L., & Streever, W. J. (1996). The legacy and future of tropical limnology. In F. Schiemer & K. T. Boland (Eds.), Perspectives in tropical limnology (pp. 27-42). Amstemdam, Netherlands: SPB Academic.
Unpublished Thesis/ dissertation    
In-text
 Kamau (2002) …………

Reference list
Kamau, A. M. (2002). Development of a program to support faculty in the creation of online courses at Kenya Methodist university. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Kenya Methodist university, Nairobi. Indicate name of country and city if not part of name
Published Thesis/dissertation    In-text
 Kiprop (2002)

Reference list
Kiprop, A. M. (2002). Development of a program to support faculty in the creation of online courses at Kenya Methodist university. Doctoral Dissertation. Nairobi: Kenya Methodist University Press.
Thesis/dissertation abstract    In-text
 Zablon (2002)


Reference list
Zablon, K. E. (2002). Development of a program to support faculty in the creation of online courses at Kenya Methodist university. (Doctoral Dissertation, Kenya Methodist University, 2002). Dissertation Abstract.
Organization or Government Dept.
(Print Format)    Put organization’s name in place of author’s name slot:
Department of Health and Human Services. (2007). Guide to service policy and program administration. Washington, DC: Author.
Note:  If the agency or organization is also the publisher, put “Author” in the spot for publisher rather than repeating the name (as illustrated in the example above).
Organization or Government Dept.
(Electronic Format)    Put organization’s name in place of author’s name slot:
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (n.d.). Registered nurses.
Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11. Retrieved October 27, 2010,
               from http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos083.htm
Note:  Since there is no clear posted or created date on the page, use “n.d.” for “no date” instead, as illustrated above.  Also, the article/section name (Registered Nurses), appears in Roman (non-italicized) type, while the document name (Occupational Outlook Handbook) appears in italicized type.
Internet site (with author, date, title and source)











    A reference citation for a web site or online source contains four elements:  Author, date, title, and source.  Here’s the format to use when all four elements are present:  
Template:
Author, A. (date). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved from http://URL
(As Chelsea Lee explains on her APA Style Blog post “How to Cite Something You found on a Website in APA Style,” a “format description in brackets [as in the template above] is only used when the format is something out of the ordinary, such as a blog post or lecture notes; otherwise, it’s not necessary.”) Following is the example she gives in her post:
Example:
Freakanomics. (2010, October 29). E-ZPass is a life-saver (literally) [blog post]. Retrieved from http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/10/29/e-zpass-is-a-life-saver-literally/
Note:  The [blog post] in the above example is the format description.  Other format description examples, listed on p. 186 of the APA Style Manual, include [Letter to the editor], [Special issue], [Special section], [Monograph], [Abstract], [Audio podcast], [Data file], [Brochure], [Motion picture], [Lecture notes], [CD], [Computer software], [Video webcast], and [Supplemental material].
Internet Site (with no individual author; only an organization as author)
    If no individual author for a Web page is given, list the organization responsible for the content of that page as the author.
Example:
The College of William and Mary. (n.d.) College mission statement.  Retrieved from http://www.wm.edu/about/administration/provost/mission/index.php
Internet Site or electronic document with no author    Move the title of the page (or the online document) into the author position:
Example:
All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39625809/ns/world_news-americas/
Note:  The date for this source (October 13, 2010), is inverted in the citation:  the year goes first, followed by a comma, and then the month and day.

Internet Site with no date    When no posted or created date is obvious or is missing on a website, use “(n.d.)” for “no date” in place of a date:
Example:
The College of William and Mary. (n.d.) College mission statement.  Retrieved from http://www.wm.edu/about/administration/provost/mission/index.php
Note:  The date to use from a web page is sometimes difficult to determine.  The APA blog entry for dating online documents cautions against using any of the following as the date--a “last modified,” or “revised on” date or copyright date that is site-wide--as none of these usually refers to when the material was actually created or posted.  If no obvious posted date is available at the beginning or the end of a document, use “n.d.” for “no date” instead (as in the preceding example).
An Application /Software    Rightsholder, A. A. (year). Title of software or program (Version number) [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://xxxx
Note:  “Rightsholder, A. A.” stands for either an individual author or a corporate author of the software.
Example:
Skyscape.  (2010). Skyscape medical resources (Version 1.9.11) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com/
A YouTube Video
(When Author/User name is available)    Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (Year, month day). Title of video
     [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx
Note:  For retrievability, the person who posted the video is put in the author position—in this case, “Apsolon, M.”  The capitalization [or lack thereof] in the screen name—“markapsalon”—is in keeping with how it appears online.
Example:
Apsolon, M. [markapsolon]. (2011, September 9). Real ghost girlcaught on Video Tape 14 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6nyGCbxD848
A YouTube Video
(When only screen name is available)
    Screen name. (Year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx
Note:  On YouTube, the screen name is most prominent. If the user’s real name is not available, include only the screen name—in this case, “Bellofolletti”—without   brackets.
Example:
Bellofolletti. (2009, April 8). Ghost caught on surveillance camera
     [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v     =Dq1ms2JhYBI&feature=related
Acts of Parliament    Give the name of the Act or regulation including the year
Education (Registration of Early Childhood Services Teachers) Regulations 2004.
For electronic versions, add a retrieval statement with the URL of the entry page of the web site, e.g.
Care of Children Act 2004. Retrieved from  http://www.legislation.govt.nz

Course handout - print version (unpublished work)



    In-text citation
 (Ochieng, 2004)
In reference list
Ochieng, P. (2004). Marketing: MKTG200-11B [Lecture notes]. Hamilton, New Zealand: University of Waikato, Department of Marketing. Or Baimwera, B. (2013). Principles Of Accounting II:ACCT 117[Lecture notes], Kenya: Kenya Methodist University, Department of Accounting
Course handout - electronic version
    In-text citation
(Archard, Merry, & Nicholson, 2011)       or
Archard, Merry, and Nicholson (2011) state that ---------
In reference list
Archard, S., Merry, R., & Nicholson, C. (2011). Karakia and waiata [Powerpoint slides]. Retrieved from TEPS757-11B (NET): Communities of Learners website: http://elearn.waikato.ac.nz/mod/resource/view.php?id=174650
Conference paper as part of a book of proceedings    In-text citation
(Shobhadevi & Bidarakoppa, 1994) or
Shobhadevi and Bidarakoppa (1994) published their ...
In reference list
Shobhadevi, Y. J., & Bidarakoppa, G. S. (1994). Possession phenomena: As a coping behaviour. In G. Davidson (Ed.), Applying psychology: Lessons from Asia-Oceania (pp. 83-95). Carlton, Vic., Australia: Australian Psychological Society.
Conference or symposium    In-text citation
(Bochner, 1996)  or Bochner (1996) addressed this ...
In reference list
Bochner, S. (1996, November). Mentoring in higher education: Issues to be addressed in developing a mentoring program. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Singapore. Retrieved from http://www.aare.edu.au/96pap/bochs96018.txt
Magazine - print only





    In-text citation
(vonDrehle et al., 2009)...       or  Von Drehle et al. (2009) assert...
If an author's name begins with a lower case letter appears at the beginning of a sentence, it must be capitalized.
In reference list
vonDrehle, D., Ghosh, B., Scherer, M., Zaidi, S. H., Baker, A., James, R., ...Peters, G. (2009, October 12). An enemy within. Time South Pacific [Australia/New Zealand editon], 174(14), 12-17.
Magazine - electronic version
    In-text citation
Robison, 2008)  or Robison (2008) considers ...
In reference list
Robison, J. (2008, January). On the waka wave. North and South, 262, 80-87. Retrieved from Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre database.
Newspaper article - print version    Cumming, G. (2003, April 5). Cough that shook the world. The New Zealand Herald, p. B4.
Kindiki, N. (2013, April 10). Counties need technical experts to achieve growth. The Daily Nation, p. 3.
Newspaper article - electronic version    Cumming, G. (2003, April 5). Cough that shook the world. The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved from http://www.nzherald.co.nz
Kindiki, N. (2013, April 10). Counties need technical experts to achieve growth. The Daily Nation. Retrieved from http://www.nation.co.ke/Features/DN2/Counties-need-technical-experts/-/957860/1741632/-/55aern/-/index.html
Newspaper article - with no author
    In-text citation
("Drivers Reject Fuel Prices", 2003)
In the in-text citation, abbreviate the title, use double quotation marks and capital letters (Publication Manual, p. 176).



Wiki    In-text citation
(University of Waikato, Law Library, n.d.)
•    (n.d.) = no date.
In reference list
University of Waikato, Law Library. (n.d.). Commentary. Retrieved July 19, 2009, from http://law.waikato.ac.nz:8080/lrs/index.php/Commentaries

Figures
For undergraduates
Figures (including Images)

    Unless it is your own work, the source must be acknowledged in full below the figure as a figure caption. The caption goes below the image with a parenthetical reference, and includes the figure number, a description of the figure, and a parenthetical reference: (Source: Author, Date). Italicize the heading "Figure" and the number. Be consistent with capitalization.
In-text citation:
Figure 1 show that ... (University of Waikato, 2010).
In reference list:
The University of Waikato. (2010). Student life. Retrieved from http://cms.its.waikato.ac.nz/__data/assets/image/0017/66230/Campus-2.jpg
Tables
    The caption goes above the table and includes the table number and a description of the table. ItalicizeTable and the number. Unless it is your own work, the source must be acknowledged below the table with a parenthetical reference: (Source: Author, Date). The full citation also goes in the references list.
For PhD and Masters Students    Permission to reproduce copyright material must be obtained from the publisher or copyright holder. If you are reproducing a figure or table, you must provide copyright information and a permission statement at the end of the caption
If you photograph a person, a signed release from that person is required giving permission for the photo to be used
Figures (including Images)
As in examples above, italicize the heading "Figure" and the number.
From a journal
Figure 1. Name of Picture. From [Adapted from] "Title of article," by A. A. Author and B. B. Author, year, Title of Journal, Volume, p. xx. Copyright Year by Publisher. Reprinted with permission.
From a book
Figure 2. Name of Picture. From [Adapted from] Title of Book (p. xx), by A. A. Author and B. B. Author, year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Reprinted with permission.
From a webpage
Figure 3. Name of Picture. From [Adapted from] Title of webpage, by A. A. Author and B. B. Author, year, Retrieved from... website: http://.... Reprinted with permission.
Tables
The caption goes above the table, with the source included as a note below the table beginning with the word "Note"
From a journal
From [Adapted from] "Title of Article," by A. A. Author and B. B. Author, year, Title of Journal, Volume, p. XX. Copyright Year by Publisher. Reprinted with permission.
From a book
From [Adapted from] Title of Book (p. xx), by A. A. Author and B. B. Author, year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Reprinted with permission.
Online discussion
    In-text citation
(Chalmers, 2000)
In reference list
Chalmers, D. (2000, November 17). Seeing with sound [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://groups.google.com/group/sci.psychology.consciousness/
Do not italicize titles of unpublished works.
Webpage    In-text citation
(Statistics New Zealand, 2007)
•    Do not write URLs in the text.
In reference list
Statistics New Zealand. (2007). New Zealand in profile 2007. Retrieved from http://www.stats.govt.nz
•    A personal or institutional webpage is considered an informally published work (Publication Manual, p. 212).
It is no longer necessary to include the date of retrieval, unless webpage content is likely to be updated (e.g. a wiki).